Corporate Support
Sitemap
Singapore

ShareInvestor.com

Mobile Edition
Mode - Streaming
Switch to Static Mode?

Price Highlight

Index Highlight

Chart
STI
3,159.7
0.9 (0.03%)

 

  • STI Straits Times Index
    3,159.7
    0.9 (0.03%)
     
  • KLCI FTSE Bursa Malaysia KLCI
    1,597.4
    1.1 (0.07%)
    Index delayed 15 minutes
  • HSI Hang Seng Index
    26,435.7
    -33.3 (-0.13%)
    Index delayed 15 minutes
  • SSE SSE Composite Index
    3,006.4
    7.2 (0.24%)
    Index delayed 15 minutes
  • N225 Nikkei 225
    22,079.1
    34.6 (0.16%)
    Index delayed 20 minutes
  • JCI Jakarta Composite Index
    6,231.5
    -13.0 (-0.21%)
    Index delayed 10 minutes
  • KOR KOSPI
    2,091.5
    11.2 (0.54%)
    Index delayed 20 minutes
  • XAO XAO
    6,839.0
    13.8 (0.20%)
     

SGX Market

Bursa Market

HKEx Market

SET Market

IDX Market

ASX Market

NYSE Market

NASDAQ Market

NYSE American Market

  • Volume: 900.5M
  • Value: 1,592.9M
  • Rise: 124
  • Fall: 142
  • Unch: 570

Intraday Market Ticker Help

Intraday Market Ticker
Time Name Type Price Vol
  • Top Active

  • Top Gainer

  • Top Loser

Top Counters
Name Last Change
Keppel DC Reit2.110+0.040
YZJ Shipbldg SGD1.000-0.050
HPH Trust USD0.168-0.006
ThaiBev0.895-0.010
Frasers Cpt Tr2.750+0.020
TEE Intl0.043-0.004
Mapletree Com Tr2.290+0.020
Rex Intl0.084-0.001
Mapletree Log Tr1.630+0.020
Golden Agri-Res0.245-

World Indices

World Indices
Name Last Change
Nasdaq 8,117.7 -65.2
HSI 26,435.7 -33.3
HSCEI 10,375.6 -9.7
Jakarta 6,231.5 -13.0
Nikkei 225 22,079.1 +34.6
SSE Comp 3,006.4 +7.2
Shanghai A 3,149.6 +7.5
Shanghai B 273.3 +0.9
PSE Comp 0.0
KOSPI 2,091.5 +11.2

Asian Indices delayed. US Indices updated twice daily at 7:30am and 7:30pm.

Fundamental - Factsheet

Help
  • Factsheet

  • Print

STERLING CONSTRUCTION CO INC STERLING CONSTRUCTION COMPANY
Updated on 20 Sep 2019 (End of trading day)
Last (USD): 13.180 Change: +0.310 High: 13.420 Remarks: -
Change (%): +2.41 Low: 12.790
Open 12.870 Yesterday's Close 12.87
Buy Price - Sell Price -
Buy Volume (share) - Sell Volume (share) -
Cumulative Volume (share) 282,535 Cumulative Value
Click to show Stock Prices chart

Key Statistics

EPS (USD) a 0.95164 Trailing EPS (USD) e 0.91302 NAV (USD) b 6.4930
PE a 13.850 Trailing PE f 14.436 Price / NAV b 2.0299
Dividend (USD) d - Cash In Hand (USD) g 2.8311 Issued & Paid-up Shares c 26,467,000
Dividend Yield (%) d - Price / Cash In Hand g 4.655 Treasury Shares h 583,000
Beta - 75 Daysi 0.074 R-Squared - 75 Days(%)i 0.12 Market Cap (M) 348.835
Beta - 500 Daysi 0.036 R-Squared - 500 Days (%)i 0.03 Enterprise Value (M) 370.461
Piotroski F Score 8 Exchange Code STRL Par Value ( $ ) n.a.
52 Weeks Volatility (%) 41.15 Free Float (%) 98.6
Sector & Industry Industrial Services - Engineering & Construction
Notes:
  1. Based on latest Full Year results announcement, adjusted for the current number of shares.
  2. Based on latest results announcement (Full Year, Half Year or Interim), adjusted for carrying value of "Other Share Capital", illustrative financial effects of corporate actions (if applicable) and the current number of shares.
  3. Rounded to the nearest thousand. Updated on 08 Aug 2019.Please click here for more information.
  4. Dividend is based on latest Full Year results announcement, adjusted for current number of shares and excludes special dividend.
  5. Summation of the earnings from the latest 4 Quarter (or 2 Half Year) results announcement, adjusted for the current number of shares.
  6. Based on Trailing EPS.
  7. Based on reported cash and cash equivalents at end and extracted from the latest results announcement (Full Year, Half Year or Interim), adjusted for the current number of shares.
  8. Rounded to the nearest thousand. Updated on 06 Aug 2019.
  9. Beta and R-Squared are calculated in relation to the market index using the historical daily closing values of the stock and index as data points.

Peer Comparison

Type Name Market Market Cap (M)a PE b Trailing PE c Price / NAV d Dividend Yield (%)d
Reference STERLING CONSTRUCTION CO INC NASDAQ 348.835 13.850 14.436 2.0299 -
Industry Engineering & Construction NASDAQ 959.347 61.651 48.250 4.1226 0.312
Local Peer EXPONENT INC NASDAQ 3,672.231 50.824 47.571 10.6796 0.729
Local Peer NEW FORTRESS ENERGY LLC NASDAQ 3,173.915 - - 39.9324 -
Local Peer MYR GRP INC NASDAQ 1,076.534 34.630 32.457 3.1753 -
Local Peer PRIMORIS SERVICES CORPORATION NASDAQ 1,026.268 13.249 12.103 1.6537 1.186
Local Peer CONSTRUCTION PARTNERS INC NASDAQ 829.398 16.330 19.884 2.5427 -
Local Peer GREAT LAKES DREDGE & DOCK CORP NASDAQ 653.578 83.612 20.597 2.5989 -
Local Peer AEGION CORPORATION NASDAQ 641.051 218.928 - 1.4987 -
Local Peer MATRIX SERVICE CO NASDAQ 467.196 16.696 16.696 1.3274 -
Local Peer IES HOLDINGS INC NASDAQ 426.866 - 15.221 1.8010 -
Local Peer INFRASTRUCTURE & ENERGY ALTERNATIVE NASDAQ 99.911 37.744 - -0.7389 -
Local Peer ENVISION SOLAR INTERNATIONAL INC NASDAQ 28.076 - - 3.7505 -
Local Peer PECK COMPANY HOLDINGS INC NASDAQ 27.649 - - 7.5093 -
Global Peer CKI HOLDINGS HKEx 133,665.571 12.800 12.798 1.2439 4.581
Global Peer CHINA RAIL CONS HKEx 127,239.915 6.294 5.770 0.7186 2.546
Global Peer CHINA RAILWAY HKEx 119,018.751 6.124 5.706 0.6307 2.797
Global Peer CHINA COMM CONS HKEx 108,370.490 4.902 4.706 0.5248 4.015
Global Peer JACOBS ENGINEERING GROUP INC NYSE 12,437.361 76.470 - 2.0523 0.686
Global Peer CIMIC GROUP LTD ASX 10,321.005 13.222 13.160 4.1619 4.901
Global Peer NWS HOLDINGS HKEx 52,174.608 8.597 8.896 1.0594 5.825
Global Peer AECOM NYSE 5,924.226 43.411 19.942 1.3768 -
Global Peer QUANTA SERVICES NYSE 5,344.621 18.220 16.235 1.4158 0.106
Global Peer CHINA STATE CON HKEx 39,181.482 8.707 8.096 0.9622 3.479
Other Global Peers MASTEC INC (NYSE), EMCOR GROUP INC (NYSE), MCC (HKEx), CHINACOMSERVICE (HKEx), HUADIAN POWER (HKEx), ATLAS ARTERIA (ASX), KBR INC (NYSE), DOWNER EDI LTD (ASX), CH ENERGY ENG (HKEx), SINOPEC SEG (HKEx), FLUOR CORP (NYSE), NetLink NBN Tr (SGX), STANTEC INC (NYSE), GAMUDA (Bursa), IJM (Bursa), MINERAL RESOURCES LTD (ASX), CMEC (HKEx), Waskita Karya (Persero) Tbk. (IDX), COMFORT SYSTEMS USA (NYSE), DYCOM INDUSTRIES (NYSE), GRANITE CONSTRUCTION (NYSE), SERBADK (Bursa), Totalindo Eka Persada Tbk. (IDX), Wijaya Karya (Persero) Tbk. (IDX), CK (SET), United Engineers (SGX), AUSDRILL LIMITED (ASX), SUNDART HLDGS (HKEx), MONADELPHOUS GROUP (ASX), STEC (SET), Inti Bangun Sejahtera Tbk. (IDX), CHALIECO (HKEx), PP (Persero) Tbk. (IDX), XINTE ENERGY (HKEx), MMCCORP (Bursa), MRCB (Bursa), AMERESCO INC (NYSE), TUTOR PERINI CORP (NYSE), SUNCON (Bursa), NRW HOLDINGS LIMITED (ASX), ARGAN INC (NYSE), Indika Energy Tbk. (IDX), EKOVEST (Bursa), Jaya Konstruksi Manggala Pratama Tbk. (IDX), TYSAN HOLDINGS (HKEx), WISON ENGRG (HKEx), QILU EXPRESSWAY (HKEx), MISTRAS GROUP INC (NYSE), AOYUAN HEALTHY (HKEx), WAI KEE HOLD (HKEx), CHENGDU EXPWAY (HKEx), DTXS SILK ROAD (HKEx), FRONTKN (Bursa), GRAND MING (HKEx), GRANA Y MONTERO SA SPON ADS EACH REP 5 ORD SHS (NYSE), CHEVALIER INT'L (HKEx), CONCORD NE (HKEx), KERJAYA (Bursa), UCD (HKEx), HKC (HOLDINGS) (HKEx), RI YING HLDGS (HKEx), Chip Eng Seng (SGX), Adhi Karya (Persero) Tbk. (IDX), CARDNO LIMITED (ASX), UNIQ (SET), ITD (SET), Bukaka Teknik Utama Tbk. (IDX), Solusi Tunas Pratama Tbk. (IDX), BAOYE GROUP (HKEx), WCT (Bursa), KAKIKO GROUP (HKEx), MUHIBAH (Bursa), Golden Energy (SGX), CNQC INT'L (HKEx), Boustead (SGX), Surya Semesta Internusa Tbk. (IDX), JOHNS LYNG GROUP LTD (ASX), HSIN CHONG GP (HKEx), ECONBHD (Bursa), EARTHASIA (HKEx), Wijaya Karya Bangunan Gedung Tbk. (IDX), PESTECH (Bursa), SICHUAN EN INV (HKEx), Boustead Proj (SGX), Meta Epsi Tbk. (IDX), KSH (SGX), ANALOGUE HLDGS (HKEx), Lian Beng (SGX), IWCITY (Bursa), SEAFCO (SET), HSL (Bursa), FSE SERVICES (HKEx), GRAND TALENTS (HKEx), WIDAD (Bursa), ALL NATION INTL (HKEx), HILL INTERNATIONAL INC (NYSE), HANISON (HKEx), DECMIL GROUP LIMITED (ASX), LEAP HLDGS GP (HKEx), ASIA ALLIED INF (HKEx), Wee Hur (SGX), LYCOPODIUM LIMITED (ASX), TTCL (SET), DAFY HOLDINGS (HKEx), PIPELINE ENG (HKEx), Civmec (SGX), MECOM POWER (HKEx), UWC (Bursa), VANTAGE INT'L (HKEx), BUILD KING HOLD (HKEx), PTARAS (Bursa), PYLON (SET), ORION GROUP HOLDINGS INC (NYSE), WATTS INT'L (HKEx), Hock Lian Seng (SGX), WANG YANG HLDGS (HKEx), VISION FAME (HKEx), BSA LIMITED (ASX), YEE HOP HLDGS (HKEx), GADANG (Bursa), SRG GLOBAL LTD (ASX), Total Bangun Persada Tbk. (IDX), DNEX (Bursa), MILLION CITIES (HKEx), NAIM (Bursa), SYNTEC (SET), JAKS (Bursa), BISU TECH (HKEx), PT INTL DEV (HKEx), PEC (SGX), Petrosea Tbk. (IDX), KIMLUN (Bursa), PAK WING GP (HKEx), Lum Chang (SGX), RICHLY FIELD (HKEx), CT VISION (HKEx), SOUTHERN CROSS ELECTRICAL ENGINEERI (ASX), SOCAM DEV (HKEx), TAUNG GOLD (HKEx), GR ENGINEERING SERVICECS LTD (ASX), YAT SING HLDG (HKEx), KKB (Bursa), HSSEB (Bursa), SRICHA (SET), SOLIS HOLDINGS (HKEx), WAN KEI GROUP (HKEx), MAGNA (Bursa), HUARONG INV (HKEx), MASTERMYNE GROUP LIMITED (ASX), OIB (Bursa), Darma Henwa Tbk (IDX), CHINA SAITE (HKEx), GAIN PLUS HLDGS (HKEx), YAU LEE HOLD (HKEx), KHOON GROUP (HKEx), SENDAI (Bursa), Dyna-Mac (SGX), Keong Hong (SGX), GRANDSHORES (HKEx), AUSTIN ENGINEERING (ASX), TA (SGX), AMPROP (Bursa), Tiong Seng (SGX), S AND T HOLDINGS LTD (HKEx), Nusa Raya Cipta Tbk. (IDX), JBB BUILDERS (HKEx), Koh Eco (SGX), PYI CORP (HKEx), Koh Bros (SGX), BREM (Bursa), TTJ (SGX), CNE TECH CORP (HKEx), WAI HUNG GROUP (HKEx), CNT (SET), KWAN ON HLDGS (HKEx), Yongnam (SGX), TPOLY (SET), EMC (SET), MITRA (Bursa), HANDS FORM HLDG (HKEx), MBWORLD (Bursa), Acset Indonusa Tbk. (IDX), PLS (Bursa), C CHENG HLDGS (HKEx), META (SET), TRC (Bursa), SFK (HKEx), GOLDFIELD CORP (NYSE American), B & D STRATEGIC (HKEx), AZRB (Bursa), NWR (SET), FULLWEALTH (HKEx), AusGroup^ (SGX), Indonesia Pondasi Raya Tbk. (IDX), BOOM LOGISTICS (ASX), HKE HOLDINGS (HKEx), ISOTeam (SGX), THELLOY DEV (HKEx), OKP (SGX), HOHUP (Bursa), HUAYUEXPRESSWAY (HKEx), CHINNEY KW (HKEx), KUB (Bursa), UNIMECH (Bursa), AWC (Bursa), Paramita Bangun Sarana Tbk. (IDX), PLE (SET), GOLDEN FAITH GP (HKEx), IBI GROUP HLDGS (HKEx), CHI HO DEV (HKEx), Y&G (Bursa), SCI (SET), NEW CONCEPTS (HKEx), ADVCON (Bursa), BGMC (HKEx), CRESBLD (Bursa), ANCHORSTONE (HKEx), DKLS (Bursa), SITE GROUP INTERNATIONAL LIMITED (ASX), BBR (SGX), GOLD-FIN HLDG (HKEx), PRIMERO GROUP LTD (ASX), SIMONDS GROUP LTD (ASX), WING FUNG GROUP (HKEx), WECON HOLDINGS (HKEx), BASETROPHY GP (HKEx), MILLIONHOPE IND (HKEx), CSC (SGX), Sanli Env (SGX), KAB (Bursa), ROYAL DELUXE (HKEx), SAM WOO CONS (HKEx), FAJAR (Bursa), Sysma (SGX), HON CORP (HKEx), Soilbuild Const (SGX), KINGBO STRIKE (HKEx), KIN PANG HLDGS (HKEx), SUPER STRONG (HKEx), LOGICAMMS LIMITED (ASX), PROUD (SET), BOLTEK (HKEx), WLS HOLDINGS (HKEx), AFFLUENT FDN (HKEx), PRTASCO (Bursa), SBCCORP (Bursa), KWONG MAN KEE (HKEx), LEBTECH (Bursa), Ryobi Kiso (SGX), PLB (Bursa), MUDAJYA (Bursa), KEN (Bursa), MAN KING HOLD (HKEx), CH DREDG ENV (HKEx), GT STEEL GROUP (HKEx), OLYMPIA (Bursa), AB BUILDERS (HKEx), Wong Fong Ind (SGX), KIN SHING HLDGS (HKEx), BDB (Bursa), King Wan (SGX), BHCC HOLDING (HKEx), SYCAL (Bursa), IREKA (Bursa), Kori (SGX), CNC HOLDINGS (HKEx), LAP KEI ENGRG (HKEx), LerenoBio-Chem (SGX), GLORY FLAME (HKEx), CAZ (SET), TEE Intl (SGX), Nusa Konstruksi Enjiniring Tbk. (IDX), LIENHOE (Bursa), AASIA (Bursa), DESON DEV INT'L (HKEx), AESO HOLDING (HKEx), SH GROUP HLDG (HKEx), FLOYD (SET), Charisma Energy (SGX), Mitra Pemuda Tbk. (IDX), KINGLAND GROUP (HKEx), KPA-BM HLDGS (HKEx), PPS (SET), IKHMAS (Bursa), SAUNDERS (ASX), INCON (HKEx), TSRCAP (Bursa), T (SET), DLF (SGX), ZELAN (Bursa), Boldtek (SGX), Mun Siong Engg^ (SGX), CHUAN HOLDING (HKEx), INDIGO STAR (HKEx), ETE (SET), DESON CONS (HKEx), PSIPTEK (Bursa), Huationg Global (SGX), MERGE (Bursa), KIRIN GROUP (HKEx), VERIS LTD (ASX), AV PROMOTIONS (HKEx), TNDT (SET), LUEN WONG GP (HKEx), SOUTH SHORE HLD (HKEx), QLT (SET), NPS (Bursa), SAAM (SET), BPURI (Bursa), MELATI (Bursa), Tritech (SGX), VISTAR HOLDINGS (HKEx), TONG KEE HLDG (HKEx), NOBLE ENG GP (HKEx), DOLMITE (Bursa), ZECON (Bursa), Progen (SGX), HYDRO (SET), Acromec (SGX), CABNET (Bursa), SEB (Bursa), VDM GROUP LIMITED (ASX), M&L HOLDINGS (HKEx), Hiap Seng^ (SGX), PASUKGB (Bursa), BINTAI (Bursa), MESB (Bursa), Koon (SGX), GME GROUP (HKEx), JETSON (Bursa), Swee Hong^ (SGX), KTECH (SET), RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT GROUP (ASX), PAE (SET), POLYFAIR HLDGS (HKEx), HOOVER (Bursa), Libra (SGX), LFECORP (Bursa), Hor Kew (SGX), MMP Resources^ (SGX), Renaissance United^ (SGX), GLOBAL TOKEN (HKEx), BEAVER GROUP (HKEx), PARKD LTD NPV (ASX), Heatec Jietong (SGX), ARK (Bursa), Perdana Karya Perkasa Tbk (IDX), PSL^ (SGX), R3D GLOBAL LIMITED (ASX), LVT (SET)
Notes:
  1. For companies, Market Cap is based on the trading currency of the company. Industry/Index Market Cap is the average market cap for that industry/index.
  2. Industry/Index PE is calculated using (Total Market Cap/Total Earnings) of all companies in the industry/index.
  3. Industry/Index Price/NAV is calculated using (Total Market Cap/Total Shareholders' Equity) of all companies in the industry/index.
  4. Industry/Index Dividend Yield is calculated using (Total Gross Dividend/Total Market Cap) of all companies in the industry/index.
  5. For Industry/Index calculation, data for foreign currency denominated companies will be converted to the main market currency using the latest exchange rate.
  6. Industry/Index/Peers data is updated daily.
  7. Peers are sorted by market capitalisation and only details for the top 10 will be shown.

Total Shareholder Return

PeriodDividend ReceivedCapital AppreciationTotal Shareholder Return
Short Term Return 5 Days -+0.680
+5.44 %
10 Days -+1.650
+14.31 %
20 Days -+2.190
+19.93 %
Medium Term Return 3 Months --0.070
-0.53 %
6 Months -+0.640
+5.10 %
1 Year --1.000
-7.05 %
Long Term Return 2 Years --1.740
-11.66 %
3 Years -+5.880
+80.55 %
5 Years -+5.620
+74.34 %
Annualised Return Annualised --
+11.76 %
Notes:
  1. Total Shareholder Return (TSR) combines share price appreciation and dividends paid to show the total return to the shareholder expressed as a percentage.
  2. Script dividends are ignored in this calculation.

Price Movements

1 Year Range 9.710 - 15.750 Change From 1 Year Low +3.470 % Change From 1 Year Low (%) +35.74
Change From 1 Year High -2.570 % Change From 1 Year High (%) -16.32
2 Years Range 9.710 - 18.900 Change From 2 Years Low +3.470 % Change From 2 Years Low (%) +35.74
Change From 2 Years High -5.720 % Change From 2 Years High (%) -30.26
5 Years Range 2.230 - 18.900 Change From 5 Years Low +10.950 % Change From 5 Years Low (%) +491.03
Change From 5 Years High -5.720 % Change From 5 Years High (%) -30.26
Notes:
  1. Price movements are based on adjusted historical data.

Company Background

Sterling Construction Co., Inc. is a construction company, which engages in the civil infrastructure construction, infrastructure rehabilitation, and residential construction projects. It operates through Heavy Civil Construction and Residential Construction segments. The Heavy Civil Construction segment comprises highways, roads, bridges, airfields, ports, light rail, water, wastewater and storm drainage systems, foundations for multi-family homes, commercial concrete projects, and parking structures projects. The Residential Construction segment include concrete foundations for single-family homes. The company was founded in 1991 and is headquartered in Houston, TX.

Historical Price Data

Date Open High Low Close Volume VWAP
20 Sep 2019 12.870 13.420 12.790 13.180 282,535 -
19 Sep 2019 13.120 13.310 12.815 12.870 225,842 -
18 Sep 2019 12.850 13.150 12.690 13.080 137,275 -
17 Sep 2019 12.670 13.000 12.440 12.930 110,552 -
16 Sep 2019 12.510 12.790 12.430 12.710 118,018 -
13 Sep 2019 12.600 12.740 12.425 12.500 102,747 -
12 Sep 2019 12.680 12.820 12.250 12.490 132,174 -
11 Sep 2019 12.340 12.730 12.160 12.690 216,848 -
10 Sep 2019 11.820 12.380 11.660 12.270 149,570 -
09 Sep 2019 11.540 11.900 11.470 11.760 107,110 -
06 Sep 2019 11.670 11.680 11.370 11.530 98,283 -
05 Sep 2019 11.450 11.720 11.336 11.490 112,702 -
04 Sep 2019 11.210 11.390 11.150 11.200 81,281 -
03 Sep 2019 11.030 11.230 10.930 11.040 79,343 -
30 Aug 2019 11.240 11.300 11.100 11.190 64,108 -
29 Aug 2019 10.890 11.190 10.880 11.150 101,038 -
28 Aug 2019 10.640 10.950 10.500 10.770 98,341 -
27 Aug 2019 11.200 11.300 10.580 10.680 147,450 -
26 Aug 2019 11.110 11.160 10.880 11.160 108,096 -
23 Aug 2019 11.330 11.340 10.920 10.990 151,959 -
22 Aug 2019 11.700 11.700 11.220 11.390 133,847 -
21 Aug 2019 11.540 11.930 11.490 11.640 177,919 -
Summary
Current 2 Weeks
(09 Sep 2019 to 20 Sep 2019)
11.540 13.420 11.470 13.180 1,582,671 -
Previous 2 Weeks
(23 Aug 2019 to 06 Sep 2019)
11.330 13.420 10.920 11.530 1,042,601 -
4 Weeks from
(26 Jul 2019 to 22 Aug 2019)
12.300 13.420 11.470 11.390 3,259,696 -
View All Historical Data

More Information Available

More information is available to our subscribers, including:

  • Market Moving News from Dow Jones Newswires
  • Consensus Estimates
  • Dividend/Distribution History
  • Financial Summary with Financial Period Comparison
  • Comprehensive Financial Ratios(ROA, ROE, Price/Revenue, Net Earnings Margin, Current Ratio, Debt to Equity Ratio etc)
  • Events Calendar for Results Announcements, Ex-Dates etc
  • Insider Buying and Selling Report

If you are an existing subscriber, please login. If not, read up on what you are missing out in our Help Centre and join us as a subscriber.

Disclaimer:

While reasonable efforts have been taken to ensure that the calculations performed by the features of this site are reliable, the features are provided on the basis that:-

  1. no liability is accepted for any errors or inaccuracies resulting from your use of these features;
  2. many of the data inputs (including share prices) are obtained from third party sources for which we assume no responsibility.